Amphibian research and conservation in Southeast Asia
A staggering one-third of all amphibian species are threatened with extinction. In Southeast Asia, amphibians have been largely overlooked.
Southeast Asian amphibians are both poorly known and highly threatened. Facing the highest deforestation rate on the planet, and huge over-harvesting pressure, Southeast Asian amphibians are being driven towards an extinction crisis.
At present, almost one-fifth of Southeast Asian amphibians are listed as threatened. We still don’t even have a reliable estimate of the true amphibian diversity in Southeast Asia, with the current figures being serious underestimates, and new species being continuously discovered.
For the amphibians that are currently known from Southeast Asia, we lack even basic natural history information for most species. Geographic distributions are also poorly known, with many species known only from a single location, and large areas in Southeast Asia remaining unsurveyed.
Our lack of knowledge of this highly threatened group of animals hinders even the most basic amphibian conservation in Southeast Asia (see abstract of a paper summarising the threats facing Southeast Asian amphibians here).
My research strives to gain a better understanding of the biology, ecology, diversity and conservation status of amphibians in Southeast Asia, and to facilitate long-term amphibian biodiversity conservation in the region.
Central to my research are scientific expeditions to unexplored and often remote, forested areas of Southeast Asia. I work with local colleagues and students, documenting the diversity, biology and conservation of the amphibians found. Reaching sites via a combination of helicopter, canoes, motorbikes and (most often) hiking, we explore high-elevation mountain streams.
A significant proportion of amphibian diversity in Southeast Asia is currently hidden within morphologically cryptic species groups currently treated as a single species. To the human eye, these species look almost exactly the same (or may even indistinguishable based upon appearance alone). Therefore, to uncover the true amphibian diversity in the region, we incorporate biological, behavioural and molecular data.
During expeditions, we will record the microhabitat and behaviour of amphibians, record the advertisement call of frogs heard, and take DNA samples from all voucher specimens. Frog advertisement calls are species-specific and have often been used to distinguish between species that are almost identical in appearance, and, once known, are extremely useful in future surveys, allowing the identification and estimate of abundance of a species without needing to handle any amphibians. DNA evidence is increasingly useful in distinguishing and describing new species, and can elucidate evolutionary relationships and reveal biogeographic patterns.
Scientific capacity building for conservation
The training of young regional scientists is essential in order to facilitate long-term amphibian research and conservation in Southeast Asia. Since 2006, I have conducted, in conjunction with local colleagues, five amphibian biology and conservation training courses in Southeast Asia (three in Vietnam, one in Cambodia, and one in Indonesia). At each course, 12-30 regional scientists, students, conservation managers, and protected area staff attended, approximately half of which joined me on scientific expeditions for further training.